Computer simulations of an automated dynamic facade in a passively heated and cooled building by using predictive modeling of short-term future weather conditions show that it is possible to achieve thermal comfort in a passively heated and cooled building in at least 10 of the 15 different climate zones in the United States. A small-scale test cell was used to test the ability to predict the interior operative temperature based on predicted weather forecasts and compared the measured results to simulated results. The test cell ran during the part of the Winter, all of the Spring and part of the Summer of 2017 for approximately 6 months. The results of the experiment were promising and they suggest ways to advance the method of predictive modeling in buildings. For the hours when an office building would most likely be occupied, 8AM until 6PM, the test cell was outside the SET operative temperature range 10% of the time. The test cell was too cold 8% of the time and too hot 2% of the time. The results of both the simulation study and the test cell were similar so modifications to the predicted model and predicted control procedure can be studied further with simulation only.
The main hypothesis for this research work is that an automated dynamic façade can provide whole year thermal comfort in a passively heated and cooled building by using predictive modeling
The test cell was designed to be highly insulated and used a constructed window. The interior shape of the test cell was based on the approximate shape of the whole
The results of the experiment were encouraging, and they provide indications for methods to advance the method of predictive modeling in buildings. For the 137 days in the experiment, the
Future research will focus on refining the predictive modeling methods and algorithms. The basic premise of this study was that by changing the amount of shading and the amount of
The simple test cell had good results and improvements can be made to the predictive modeling method. The results of the experiment were encouraging and they do give indications to
Aksamija, A., T. Peters, 2016. “Passive Solar Facades, Thermal Comfort and Climate Change: Predictive modelling with near and distant weather patterns”, Proceedings of PLEA 2016 Conference.
ASHRAE. 2013. “ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2013.Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASHRAE Sta: 58.
Briggs, RS, RG Lucas, and ZT Taylor. 2003. “Climate Classification for Building Energy Codes and Standards: Part 1 - Development Process.” In ASHRAE Transactions, 109 PART 1:109–21.
Department of Energy, US. 2016. “EnergyPlus Engineering Reference.”
Grimmer, DP. 1979. “Theoretical Considerations in the Use of Small Passive-Solar Test Boxes to Model the Thermal Performance of Passively Solar Heated Building Designs.” Solar Energy 22 (4): 343–50.
Humphreys, MA. 1977. “The Optimum Diameter for a Globe Thermometer for Use Indoors.” Annals of Occupational Hygiene 20: 135–40.
Littler, J. 1993. “Test Cells: Do We Need Them?” Building and Environment 28 (2): 221–28.
Mahdavi, A. 2001. “Simulation-Based Control of Buildings Systems Operation.” Building and Environment 36: 789–96.
Mateus, NM, A Pinto, and GC Da Graça. 2014. “Validation of EnergyPlus Thermal Simulation of a Double Skin Naturally and Mechanically Ventilated Test Cell.” Energy and Buildings 75 (June): 511–22.
NFRC. 2017. “THERM 7 / WINDOW 7 NFRC Simulation Manual,” no. July.
NOAA. 2019. “National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Service.” Https://Graphical.Weather.Gov/Xml/.
Peters, T. N., 2015. “The potential of predictive modeling and automated building facade elements to attain thermal comfort” Proceedings of ARCC 2015 Conference.
Phillips, N, and BJ Bond. 1999. “A Micro-Power Precision Amplifier for Converting the Output of Light Sensors to a Voltage Readable by Miniature Data Loggers.” Tree Physiology 19 (8): 547–49.
USDOE. 2019. “EnergyPlus Website.” https://energyplus.net. (accessed January 1, 2016).