Buildings have a considerable impact on the environment, and it is crucial to consider environmental and energy performance in building design. Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for meeting occupants’ thermal comfort in buildings, followed by lighting. The building facade forms a barrier between the exterior and interior environments, therefore it has a crucial role in improving energy efficiency and building performance.
In this regard, decision-makers are required to establish an optimal solution, considering multi-objective problems that are usually competitive and nonlinear, such as energy consumption, financial costs, environmental performance, occupant comfort, etc. Sustainable building design requires considerations of a large number of design variables and multiple, often conflicting objectives, such as the initial construction cost, energy cost, energy consumption and occupant satisfaction. One approach to address these issues is the use of building performance simulations and optimization methods.
This paper presents a novel method for improving building facade performance, taking into consideration occupant comfort, energy consumption and energy costs. The paper discusses development of a framework, which is based on multi-objective optimization and uses a genetic algorithm in combination with building performance simulations. The framework utilizes EnergyPlus simulation engine and Python programming to implement optimization algorithm analysis and decision support. The framework enhances the process of performance-based facade design, couples simulation and optimization packages, and provides flexible and fast supplements in facade design process by rapid generation of design alternatives.
Buildings and construction sectors combined are responsible for 36% of global final energy consumption and nearly 40% of total direct and indirect CO2 emissions (IEA 2019). Buildings’ energy demand continues
Previous related research regarding building envelope and simulation-based optimization are discussed below. Application of computational optimization methods in sustainable building envelope design with focus on residential retrofits was reviewed in
The new framework for performance-based facade design, aiming to minimize building energy consumption and energy cost while considering occupants’ comfort level, was developed as part of this research. This is
This paper discussed the role of simulations and optimization in design decision-making process. Then, a novel performance-based facade design framework was described, where different performance criteria and variables have been
Aksamija, Ajla. Sustainable facades: Design methods for high-performance building envelopes, John Wiley and Sons, 2013.
Attia, Shady, Mohamed Hamdy, William O’Brien, and Salvatore Carlucci. "Assessing gaps and needs for integrating building performance optimization tools in net zero energy buildings design." Energy and Buildings 60 (2013): 110-124.
Clarke, Joseph Andrew, and J. L. M. Hensen. "Integrated building performance simulation: Progress, prospects and requirements." Building and Environment 91 (2015): 294-306.
Crawley, Drury B., Jon W. Hand, Michael Kummert, and Brent T. Griffith. "Contrasting the capabilities of building energy performance simulation programs." Building and Environment 43, no. 4 (2008): 661-673.
Evins, Ralph, Philip Pointer, and Stuart Burgess. "Multi-objective optimization of a modular building for different climate types." In First Building Simulation and Optimization Conference (2012), Loughborough, pp. 173-180.
Evins, Ralph. "A review of computational optimisation methods applied to sustainable building design." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013): 230-245.
Fanger, Poul O. "Thermal comfort. Analysis and applications in environmental engineering." Thermal comfort: Analysis and applications in environmental engineering. (1970).
Gero, John S., Neville D'Cruz, and Antony D. Radford. "Energy in context: A multicriteria model for building design." Building and Environment 18, no. 3 (1983): 99-107.
Gosavi, Abhijit. Simulation-based optimization. Berlin: Springer, 2015.
Hensen, Jan LM, and Roberto Lamberts, eds. Building performance simulation for design and operation. Routledge, 2012.
Hinton, Geoffrey E., Nitish Srivastava, Alex Krizhevsky, Ilya Sutskever, and Ruslan R. Salakhutdinov. "Improving neural networks by preventing co-adaptation of feature detectors." arXiv preprint arXiv:1207.0580 (2012).
Huang, Yu, and Jian-lei Niu. "Optimal building envelope design based on simulated performance: History, current status and new potentials." Energy and Buildings 117 (2016): 387-398.
Ioffe, Sergey, and Christian Szegedy. "Batch normalization: Accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift." arXiv preprint arXiv:1502.03167 (2015).
Li, Xiwang, Jin Wen, and Er-Wei Bai. "Developing a whole building cooling energy forecasting model for on-line operation optimization using proactive system identification." Applied Energy 164 (2016): 69-88.
Machairas, Vasileios, Aris Tsangrassoulis, and Kleo Axarli. "Algorithms for optimization of building design: A review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014): 101-112.
Nguyen, Anh-Tuan, Sigrid Reiter, and Philippe Rigo. "A review on simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performance analysis." Applied Energy 113 (2014): 1043-1058.
Ostergard, Torben, Rasmus L. Jensen, and Steffen E. Maagaard. "Building simulations supporting decision making in early design–A review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 61 (2016): 187-201.
Shi, Xing, Zhichao Tian, Wenqiang Chen, Binghui Si, and Xing Jin. "A review on building energy efficient design optimization rom the perspective of architects." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 65 (2016): 872-884.
Wang, Haidong, and Zhiqiang John Zhai. "Advances in building simulation and computational techniques: A review between 1987 and 2014." Energy and Buildings 128 (2016): 319-335.
Zhang, Yi. "Parallel EnergyPlus and the development of a parametric analysis tool." In 11th Conference of International Building Performance Association (IBPSA), Glasgow, UK, July, pp. 27-30. 2009.