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Designing a sustainable rainscreen wall assembly has become an essential part of most new construction projects. Industry principles and energy codes are continually advocating for improved energy efficiency goals. Programs are being developed which incentivize building owners to invest in better thermal performing building envelopes. Professionals across the world are criticizing previously accepted limitations and are aspiring toward zero carbon targets. In response to these efforts, the design approach taken for such a common façade element as a rainscreen wall assembly is being transformed.
Nonetheless, the building envelope profession at large continually comments on the flaws which exist within implementation methods of green façades. The increasing complexity of rainscreen wall assemblies; lack of effective communication; resistance to share knowledge within the industry; and the increased tactic of shifting liability onto others has produced copious obstacles in executing a sustainable rainscreen assembly.
Research and anecdotes compiled from leading professionals within different sectors of the façade industry have underlined many of the common deficiencies associated with the design and execution process. However, that same research and those same anecdotes underline an almost universal desire to improve collaboration within the façade industry. The sustainability of rainscreen wall assemblies is improving, but not all parties are always included in the conversation. The investigation conducted provides insight to the areas of the sustainable rainscreen wall assembly design process which are overlooked or lacking ownership and consideration for the parties and approaches being developed to provide valuable solutions.
The demands of construction are changing as the world makes technological advancements and the global conscience surges. Buildings are no longer seen as just the background for society to unfold but now are significant tools which sculpt cultural development and define the global climate crisis. In response, building designs are becoming more elaborate and more environmental, satisfying expectations much higher than in the past.
Building facades are the aesthetic expression of a building’s purpose, however, the envelope also “provides regulatory functions such as thermal control against the environmental impacts on the building system, thereby protecting the indoor environment of buildings” (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2013). “Unfortunately, design and detailing of facades have received much less attention than the building structure itself” (Miraz and Moghtadernejad, 2014). The methods and principles of façade construction are not evolving well enough to balance the elevated environmental expectations. Consequently, façade assemblies, such as rainscreen opaque wall assemblies, continue to suffer repetitive failures which the construction industry should presently be capable of avoiding.
“Institutionally, some of the lessons learned from major failures and collapses have been incorporated into our codes and standards over the years but even then, the origin of the lesson and context of the problems are often lost making it difficult to apply the lesson to future situations” (Parfitt, 2012). This is due to the fact that the construction industry tends to decline any opportunity for making public knowledge of facade failures. Although understandable in the current protectionist culture, this approach to façade failures is nurturing an industry which does not learn from mistakes. Nevertheless, with proper guidance and progressive construction principles, the construction industry is still capable of making progress toward the reduction of façade failures.
“In 2010, the world’s buildings accounted for 32% of global final energy use and 19% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Under business-as-usual projections, use of energy in buildings globally could double or even triple by 2050” (European Climate Foundation, 2013). The silver lining to such global climate change impact is the possibility of forced transformation within the building envelope industry. As the construction industry evaluates the methods used for building, common practices which lend to façade failures may be enhanced, amended, or removed from the current processes all together.
Sustainable construction principles are leading design teams and building component manufacturers to evaluate the implementation methods utilized within the industry with a critical eye. Already improvements can be seen in construction quality all around the world due to the more vigorous steps required to meet various sustainable certification programs. This research will explore the disconnect between aspirational sustainable design and construction principles and the implementation measures of constructing rainscreen facades.
1.1 Aims and Objectives
Previous research has been completed considering the shortcomings of the building design and construction process, however, minimal research has addressed the impact sustainable principles are having on the process. This research aims to highlight the areas of rainscreen façade implementation which are being enhanced due to the move toward sustainable buildings as well as draw attention to areas of the rainscreen façade industry which are not being fully impacted.
More specifically, the main objectives of this research are to,
- Evaluate the relevant building and energy code requirements of facades in relation to sustainable design and construction principles.
- Establish the current sustainable construction principles which relate to façade design and implementation.
- Evaluate the ways in which sustainable construction principles impact the design of facades.
- Evaluate the ways in which sustainable construction principles impact the implementation and installation of facades.
- Establish the main methods in which facades fail due to design.
- Establish the main methods in which facades fail due to implementation.
- Analyze the impact of sustainable construction principles on the installation of façade systems.
- Extrapolate improvements which could be made to sustainable design and construction principles to better the actualization of sustainable rainscreen facades.
1.2 Research Methodology
Per the objectives established, the research methodology will consist of both a literature review and qualitative data collection through a photographic analysis. These methods provide a base knowledge of the subject matter informed by historical research and established conclusions of said research; as well as provide primary data research which can be compounded together to determine supported conclusions.
1.2.1 Literature Review
The literature review will primarily define the assumptions used to meet the initial six objectives of this research. Evaluating the relevant building and energy code requirements are included within the literature review as these codes are the industry standards developed to design and construct facades, sustainable or not. For the purposes of this research, the International Building Code (IBC), International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), American Society of heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineer (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and International Green Construction Code (IgCC) will be the key codes referenced as they are the most widely used.
Assessing the established guidelines within the green building rating and assessment programs such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), along with studying sustainable principles created by experts within the field of green building can define the relevant sustainable principles applicable to the design and construction of facades.
There are numerous known modes of failure for facades as ‘failure’ can be a subjective term to many within the construction industry. Accordingly, a crucial function of the literature review is to define the modes of façade failures most relevant to the aim of this research and those truly valuable to the visual analysis qualitative study.
1.2.2 Photographic Analysis
The primary research method employed for this research is a photographic analysis. Curating photos of façade installations on sustainable construction sites is a very valuable tool for many reasons. Hartel and Thomson (2011) summarized Weber’s (2008) ten reasons why images may prove valuable in research:
- Images can be used to capture the ineffable, the hard-to-put-into-words.
- Images can make us pay attention to things in a new way.
- Images are likely to be memorable.
- Images can be used to communicate more holistically, incorporating multiple layers, and evoking stories or questions.
- Images can enhance empathetic understanding and generalizability.
- Through metaphor and symbol, artistic images can carry theory elegantly and eloquently.
- Images encourage embodied knowledge.
- Images can be more accessible than most forms of academic discourse.
- Images can facilitate reflexivity in research design.
- Images provoke action for social justice.
When viewed through the lens of the guidelines and definitions set forth within the literature review, this photographic research method allows for an objective evaluation of façade deficiencies observed on sustainable building construction sites.
2.1 Building and Energy Codes
Building and energy codes provide the minimum performance requirements for constructing new buildings and renovating or restoring existing buildings. Per the Environmental and Energy Study
3.1 Building and Energy Codes
3.1.1 International Building Code
In Chapter 2 the IBC was briefly discussed for the requirements to provide a weather protective façade. The IBC will now
4.1 Aim of the Investigation
As the primary methods of façade failures have been identified and the sustainable design and construction principles have been established, the next phase in the
The overall aim for this research was to analyze the implementation of sustainable rainscreen façade assemblies in comparison to the aspirational design based on sustainable design and construction principles. As
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