Daylighting is a key strategy to energy efficiency and improved occupant comfort, health, and productivity in buildings. However, providing desired amount of natural light while avoiding excessive thermal and visual discomfort caused by sunlight penetrations has been challenging in practice. The design of the Baylor University Paul L. Foster Campus for Business and Innovation in Waco, TX was driven by environmental performance. This LEED Gold project houses a mix of open spaces, instructional facilities, and offices in 285,000 sf floor area. Among a number of sustainable features, the atrium skylights and light scoops facing various orientations play a critical role in creating comfortable but interesting luminous environments. The paper first addresses the skylight and light scoop design process which attempted to provide glare free natural light and capture different light color temperatures throughout a day. Extensive computer based daylighting simulations were performed to determine optimum configurations, orientations, and finishes of the light scoops to block, reflect, and re-direct various sun angles. In 2017, a post-occupancy evaluation study was performed for an entire day from sunrise to sunset at the Spring Equinox. Electrical lighting inside the central atrium was turned off in order to measure natural light levels only. Various light sensors and data loggers were utilized to accurately document and analyze daylighting performance throughout the entire atrium space. High Dynamic Range imaging technique was also utilized to document luminance distribution and light color temperatures of the skylights. The simulated daylight levels and the field measured illuminance and luminance values were thoroughly compared and analyzed. The measured data shows that daylighting design goals were successfully achieved. Findings will help develop a new framework for evaluating the performance of daylighting design techniques in built projects. Also, the importance of collaborative efforts in between practice and academia was highlighted.
Building envelope is one of the most important components in architecture as it defines overall aesthetic of a building and filters exterior environment such natural light, wind, sound, and heat
The selected case study, Baylor University Paul L. Foster Campus for Business and Innovation, is located in Waco, Texas. The building was completed in 2015 and it is a four
In order to overcome the weakness of the previous field measurement study, advanced data collection techniques were utilized as follows. A full day site visit was performed to collect both
Illuminance and luminance data has been collected for one entire day. Clear sky condition was desired to observe maximum daylighting performance of the skylight and light scoop. Weather forecast information
Both interior and exterior illuminance values were thoroughly compared between measured and simulated values in order to understand the actual daylighting performance in dynamic sky condition. During design phase, illuminance
Entire day’s daylighting post-occupancy evaluation study was successfully performed at Baylor University Paul L. Foster Campus for Business and Innovation in Waco, TX. Advanced luminance and illuminance data collection methodologies
The authors appreciate Baylor School of Business to make all the coordination efforts on building access, data collection, and architectural lighting controls.
Hirning, Michael, Gillian Isoardi, and Ian Cowling. “Discomfort glare in open plan green buildings.” Energy and Buildings 70 (2014): 427-440.
Hirning, Michael, Gillian Isoardi, Coyne S, Ian Cowling, and Veronica Garcia-Hansen. “Post occupancy evaluation relating to discomfort glare: A study of green buildings in Brisbane.” Building and Environment 59 (2013): 349-357.
J. Shin, G. Yun, and J. Kim, “View types and luminance effects on discomfort glare assessment from windows”, Energy Build. 46 (2012): 139–145.
Katzenstein, Erick. “Occupancy Comfort Sensors.” LMN Architects, September 9, 2013. https://lmnarchitects.com/tech... (accessed August 25, 2017).
Kensek, Kensek. and Jae Yong Suk. “Difference between Daylight Factor (overcast sky) and Daylight Availability (clear sky) in Computer-based Daylighting Simulations”, Journal of Creative Sustainable Architecture & Built Environment (CSABE), Volume1.
Konis, Kyle. “Evaluating daylighting effectiveness and occupant visual comfort in a side-lit open-plan office buildings in San Francisco, California.” Building and Environment 59 (2013): 662-677.
Nicol, Mark, Jerrod Kennard, and Mario D Goncalves. “Analysis, sensors, and performance- closing the loop with post-occupancy data analysis”. Proceeding of Façade Tectonics World Congress (2016), Los Angeles, CA.
Suk, Jae Yong, Marc Schiler, and Karen Kensek. “Absolute glare and relative glare factor based metric: predicting and quantifying levels of daylight glare in office space.” Energy and Buildings 130 (2016): 8-19.
Suk, Jae Yong, Marc Schiler, and Karen Kensek. “Development of new daylight glare analysis methodology using absolute glare factor and relative glare factor.” Energy and Buildings 64 (2013): 113-122.
Suk, Jae Yong and Marc Schiler. “Investigation of Evalglare Software, Daylight Glare Probability and High Dynamic Range Imaging for Daylight Glare Analysis.” Lighting Research and Technology (2012).
Wienold, Jan and Jens Christoffersen, Towards a New Daylight Glare Rating, Lux Europa, Berlin (2005).