Carbon-Dioxide-Inhaling Facade

Design of a bioreactor façade to produce active ingredients and high-value products

Overview

Authors

Photo of Prof. Dr. Timo Schmidt

Prof. Dr. Timo Schmidt

Professor for façade technology and design

University of Applied Sciences, Augsburg

timo.schmidt@hs-augsburg.de

Photo of Carmen Herrmann

Carmen Herrmann

Student

University of Applied Sciences, Augsburg

carmen.herrmann@hs-augsburg.de

Photo of Dr. Michael Lakatos

Dr. Michael Lakatos

Professor

University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern

michael.lakatos@hs-kl.de

Photo of Daniel Zabicki

Daniel Zabicki

Scientific Employee

University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern

daniel.zabicki@hs-kl.de

Photo of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Wahl

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Wahl

Professor

University of Applied Sciences, Trier

m.wahl@umwelt-campus.de

Photo of Kai Scherer

Kai Scherer

PhD Student

University of Applied Sciences, Trier

k.scherer@umwelt-campus.de


Keywords


Abstract

3.5 billion years ago, cyanobacteria created the foundation for life on Earth by producing the oxygen basis for our atmosphere. Should we once again give microorganisms the opportunity to positively influence life on earth? The competition for land between the fuel tank, trough and dinner plate is intensifying as the population grows and land is lost due to climate change. food and resources and improving health standards are fundamental in overcoming the challenges we face. Scientists from various universities as well as the company Wicona are working on a façade-integrated photobioreactor that uses algae and cyanobacteria (combined as micro-algae), to produce a wide variety of products in order to create a new agricultural area in the vertical plane. The façade supports agriculture and its horizontal areas in the production of fertilizer in order to achieve higher yields in a biological manner. The development of such a novel emersed photobioreactor (ePBR) must fulfill various requirements from different fields.

Firstly, the biological environmental parameters must be considered. The micro-algae used in this process grow on surfaces and mainly need light, heat, humidity and CO2to grow. Daylight is provided everyday by the sun. CO2 is present in the outside air, room air and usually excessively in exhaust gases. Waste heat from buildings is also available and can be used for conditioning the reactor. The interface between the natural environment and buildings is the façade and is therefore predestined to provide all environmental parameters as passively as possible. The amount of water can be controlled by using energy-efficient aerosol-based technology.

Furthermore, there is the process concept that must be integrated into the construction. However, attention should also be paid to the general requirements for façades, room qualities and design. The high aesthetics are amplified by the visual effect of nebulous mist moving inside the cavity. The façade can be illuminates at night to guarantee a 24h production, coloring the sleeping city in an atmospheric green hue while inhaling carbon dioxide.

Introduction

One effect of a growing population will be an increased demand for resources and space. According to forecasts, an additional agricultural area approximately the size of Brazil will be in

Members Only

Background

Environmental Parameters

To overcome the limitations of existing aquatic systems (submerse) and to achieve a positive cumulative energy balance, the authors invented an air-exposed (emerse) system utilizing terrestrial algae. In comparison

Members Only

Development and Construction

Development of the 1:1 Mock-up

The scientific group of the research project "Next Generation Biofilm" developed the first large demonstrator with the size 2.0 m x 1.5 m. A tube reactor

Members Only

Data

In addition to the “Inhaling of Carbon Dioxide” topic, the research cluster is evaluating the food production rate, fine dust binding capacity and downstream processes for the extraction of high

Members Only

Conclusion and future work

The potential of a façade, which assumes the classic functions of a building envelope as a protective layer, forms synergies with the building, creates new urban agricultural land, inhales/fixes CO2

Members Only

Acknowledgements

Wicona, Hydro Building Systems Germany GmbH

SageGlass, Vetrotech Saint-Gobain International AG

German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; Project: Next Generation Biofilm (BMBF: 031B0068A-E)

Rights and Permissions

BMEL 2018. “https://www.bmel.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/Landwirtschaft/Markt-Statistik/Ernte2018Bericht.pdf?__blob=publicationFile.”.

Chisti, Yusuf. 2007. “Biodiesel from microalgae.” Biotechnology advances 25 (3): 294–306.

Helm, Richard F., Zebo Huang, Devin Edwards, Heidi Leeson, William Peery, and Malcolm Potts. 2000. “Structural Characterization of the Released Polysaccharide of Desiccation-Tolerant Nostoc Commune DRH-1.” Journal of Bacteriology 182 (4): 974–82.

Lakatos, Michael, and Dorina Strieth. 2018. “Terrestrial Microalgae: Novel Concepts for Biotechnology and Applications.” In Progress in Botany Vol. 79. Vol. 79, edited by Francisco M. Cánovas, Ulrich Lüttge, and Rainer Matyssek, 269–312. Progress in Botany. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

McCree, K. J. 1972. “Test of current definition of photosynthetically active radiations against leaf photosynthesis data.”.

McCree, K. J. 1981. “Physiological Plant Ecology I. Responses to the Physical Environment. Photosynthetically Active Radiation.”.

Ozkan, Altan, Kerry Kinney, Lynn Katz, and Halil Berberoglu. 2012. “Reduction of Water and Energy Requirement of Algae Cultivation Using an Algae Biofilm Photobioreactor.” Bioresource Technology 114:542–48.

Proplanta 2019. “https://www.proplanta.de/web/CO2-Bilanz+Land-+und+%ADForstwirtschaft_ll1259611455.html.”.

Reitmayer, H. 2000. “Quantifizierung des spektralen Angebots photosynthetisch aktiver Strahlung (PAR) innerhalb eines Fichten-Buchen-Mischbestandes – Entwicklung und Aufbau eines Vielkanalmesssystems zur Erfassung des Sonnenspektrums im Wellenlängenberich von 400 nm bis 850 nm.” Dissertation, TU München.

Schmidt, Timo, Carmen Herrmann, and Michael Lakatos. 2019. “Agro-urbane Architektur: Gebäudeintegrierte Systemlösungen für die urbane Lebensmittelproduktion schaffen eine Lösung für die Flächenkonkurrenz von Stadt und Agrarkultur.” DETAIL (5): 14–16.

Statista 2016. “https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/167877/umfrage/co-emissionen-nach-laendern-je-einwohner/. 2016.”.

Strieth, Dorina. 2013. “Optimierung und Evaluierung von Wachstumsprozessen und Übertragung auf den Photobioreaktor.” Masterarbeit.