Recently, building envelopes have been exhibiting complex shapes and patterns, a trend supported by current digital technologies. Likewise, the design exploration of these envelopes has been combined with analysis and optimization processes, with the aim of achieving better performing solutions. Nevertheless, the exploration of architectural skins still poses some limitation to architects when using new design approaches, such as algorithmic design, simulation, and optimization strategies, as they require specialized expertise. Furthermore, the integration of design analysis and optimization processes in the algorithmic design workflow has shortcomings, such as the fragmentation resulting from the use of multiples models and tools, a process that is error-prone, time-consuming, and hard-working.
In this paper, we discuss a framework developed to ease the mathematical description of algorithmic facade designs, which intends to integrate the most used analysis and optimization processes in a continuous design exploration workflow. To this end, a classification of facades was developed, based on computationally relevant categorical dimensions, that integrates a set of fundamental algorithms and strategies for each dimension. The result is a library of algorithms available in different programming languages, and a set of guidelines that help architects select and combine the most useful algorithms for a given facade design. The algorithmic structure of the developed solutions is flexible, hence, suitable to connect with the chosen analysis and optimization processes, allowing their inclusion in a continuous workflow.
Architecture has always explored the latest technological advances in terms of building technology, as well as architectural production and representation. Nowadays, the new digital tools play a relevant role in
Algorithmic Design (AD) is a design approach that describes a design through a set of rules and algorithms (Alfaris and Merello 2008), allowing the designer to transcend “the factory-set
Architectural practice is highly dependent on the specific circumstances of the design brief and, thus, it is unlikely that the exact same approach can be used in a
Currently, we are witnessing an increased concern regarding environmental problems, in which architects play an important role. Architects are more aware of the negative impacts architectural practice has in the
This work was supported by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) with reference UID/CEC/50021/2013, and by the PhD grant under contract of University of Lisbon (UL), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) and the research unit Investigação e Inovação em Engenharia Civil para a Sustentabilidade (CERIS).
Alexander, C., S. Ishikawa, M. Silverstein, and M. Jacobson. 1977. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Alfaris, Anas, and Riccardo Merello. 2008. “The Generative Multi-Performance Design System.” In ACADIA 08 › Silicon + Skin › Biological Processes and Computation, 448–57. http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?acadia08_448.
Andrade, Diego, Mikako Harada, and Kenji Shimada. 2017. “Framework for Automatic Generation of Facades on Free-Form Surfaces.” Frontiers of Architectural Research. Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.foar.2017.04.003.
Caetano, Inês, and António Leitão. 2016. “Exploring Buildings’ Surface Patterns.” In Architecture In-Play International Conference. Lisbon, Portugal.
Caetano, Inês, Luís Santos, and António Leitão. 2015. “From Idea to Shape , From Algorithm to Design: Algorithmic-Based Processes in Architecture.” In The next City - New Technologies and the Future of the Built Environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015, 483. São Paulo, Brazil.
Chien, Sheng-fen, Hsiu-pai Su, and Yu-wei Huang. 2015. “PARADE: A Pattern-Based Knowledge Repository for Parametric Designs.” In Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia.
Davis, Daniel, Jane Burry, and Mark Burry. 2011. “Understanding Visual Scripts: Improving Collaboration through Modular Programming.” International Journal of Architectural Computing 9 (4): 361–76. doi:10.1260/1478-0722.214.171.1241.
Eigensatz, Michael, Mario Deuss, Alexander Schiftner, Martin Kilian, Niloy Mitra, Helmut Pottmann, and Mark Pauly. 2010. “Case Studies in Cost-Optimized Paneling of Architectural Freeform Surfaces.” In Advances in Architectural Geometry 2010, edited by Cristiano Ceccato, Lars Hesselgren, Mark Pauly, Helmut Pottmann, and Johannes Wallner, 47–72. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-0309-8.
Eigensatz, Michael, Martin Kilian, Alexander Schiftner, Niloy Mitra, Helmut Pottmann, and Mark Pauly. 2010. “Paneling Architectural Freeform Surfaces.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 29 (4): 1–10.
Flöry, Simon, and Helmut Pottmann. 2010. “Ruled Surfaces for Rationalization and Design in Architecture.” In ACADIA 2010: Life In:formation, 103–9.
Fu, Chi-wing, and Daniel Cohen-or. 2010. “K-Set Tilable Surfaces.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 29 (4): 1–6. doi:10.1145/1778765.1778781.
Gibson, Ian, David Rosen, and Brent Stucker. 2010. “Development of Additive Manufacturing Technology.” In Additive Manufacturing Technologies: 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing, 19–43. Springer.
Hudson, Roland. 2010. “Strategies for Parametric Design in Architecture: An Application of Practice Led Research.” Ph.D Thesis. University of Bath.
Janssen, Patrick. 2014. “Visual Dataflow Modelling: Some Thoughts on Complexity.” In Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, edited by Emine Mine Thompson, 305–14. England, UK.
Khwaja, Salman, and Mohammad Alshayeb. 2013. “Towards Design Pattern Definition Language.” Software - Practice and Experience 43 (7): 747–57. doi:10.1002/spe.1122.
Kolarevic, Branko, ed. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing. New York: Spon Press.
Leitão, António, Jose Lopes, and Luis Santos. 2014. “Illustrated Programming.” In Acadia 2014: Design Agency, 291–300.
Leitão, António, Luís Santos, and José Lopes. 2012a. “Programming Languages For Generative Design: A Comparative Study.” International Journal of Architectural Computing 10 (1): 139–62. doi:10.1260/1478-07126.96.36.199.
———. 2012b. “Programming Languages For Generative Design: Visual or Textual?” In RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia), 139–62. Ljubljana. doi:ISBN: 978-9-4912070-1-3.
Mesnil, Romain, Cyril Douthe, Olivier Baverel, Bruno Léger, and Jean-françois Caron. 2015. “Isogonal Moulding Surfaces: A Family of Shapes for High Node Congruence in Free-Form Structures.” Automation in Construction 59. Elsevier B.V.: 38–47. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2015.07.009.
Moneo, R. 2001. “The Thing Called Architecture.” In Anything, edited by C. Davidson, 120–23. New York: Anyone Corporation.
Qian, Z C, Y V Chen, and Robert Woodbury. 2008. “Developing a Simple Repository to Support Authoring Learning Objects.” International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication 2 (2): 154–73. doi:10.1504/IJAMC.2008.018505.
Qian, Zhenyu Cheryl. 2009. “Design Patterns: Augmenting Design Practice in Parametric CAD Systems.” SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY.
Shapiro, Alexander. 2003. “Monte Carlo Sampling Methods.” In Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science, 353–425. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/s0927-0507(03)10006-0.
Son, Seunghyun, Heni Fitriani, Jeong Tai Kim, Seongseok Go, and Sunkuk Kim. 2017. “Mathematical Algorithms of Patterns for Free-Form Panels.” In Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering (CSEE’17), 1–8. doi:10.11159/icsenm17.101.
Su, Hsiu-pai, and Sheng-fen Chien. 2016. “Revealing Patterns: Using Parametric Design Patterns in Building Facade Design Workflow.” In Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, 167–76.
Terzidis, Kostas. 2004. “Algorithmic Design : A Paradigm Shift in Architecture ?” In Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, Pp. 201-207, 201–7. Warsaw.
Woodbury, Robert. 2010. Elements of Parametric Design. New York: Routledge.
Woodbury, Robert, Robert Aish, and Axel Kilian. 2007. “Some Patterns for Parametric Modeling.” 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, 222–29. http://moodle.ncku.edu.tw/file.php/2687/assignments/ParametricPatterns.pdf.
Yu, Rongrong, and John S Gero. 2015. “An Empirical Foundation for Design Patterns in Parametric Design.” In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2015, edited by Y. Ikeda;, C. M. Herr;, D. Holzer;, S. Kaijima;, M. J. Kim;, and Schnabel ; M, A, 551–560. doi:10.1177/1478077116663351.
Zboinska, Malgorzata A. 2015. “Hybrid CAD/E Platform Supporting Exploratory Architectural Design.” CAD Computer Aided Design 59. Elsevier Ltd: 64–84. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2014.08.029.