A Study on the Impact of Hospital Facade Opening Focusing Outdoor Exposure on Waiting Room Experience

Eye Hospital as Case Study

Overview

Authors

Photo of Iftekhar Rahman

Iftekhar Rahman

Associate Professor

Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST)

ifti48buet@gmail.com


Keywords


Abstract

The paper will try to study the impact of window opening on waiting room experience of patients in an eye hospital along with their attendants. As different studies have revealed the impact of openings are significant in surgical patients’ recovery but hardly any studies can be seen in terms of outdoor eye patients and furthermore in the context of developing world, where there are different type of patients having different income and education level. Different situations were observed i.e. waiting room having a window opening with its view vs. waiting room without a window opening. While considering the experience of the patients in the waiting room, the paper tried to examine the influence of the window openings on perceived and actual waiting time (whether the actual and perceived waiting time is the same, or over/under). While considering the influence of outdoor exposure on waiting time, focus was also on patients’ anxiety level, nervousness, activities while waiting, overall waiting experience, comfortability of the overall environment and also relating the variables with the demographic information such as age, gender, education, income level and observe how people react in the waiting room environment. The study is based on field study through questionnaire survey and observation of the physical attributes of the waiting rooms. The results from the questionnaire survey were analysed through statistical analysis and revealed significant relationships among the studied variables. Interestingly it can be seen that, young respondents due to the usage of smart phone devices, thought outdoor exposures because of window didn’t have much influence on waiting time. While it was also seen that, more the people were educated the less they felt comfortable in terms of the overall environment and overall waiting experience was negative. At the same time, more the income of the people was; the perception of necessity of the window was more.

Introduction

Waiting is an unavoidable experience when patients visit hospitals and clinics. Some may perceive it as the least pleasant part of the healthcare experience. Long waiting times have a negative

Members Only

Literature Review

Waiting is common in healthcare settings, especially in outpatient services. However, waiting is likely to be considered as an unpleasant experience that people try to avoid (Durrande-Moreau, 1999; Gasparini, 1995)

Members Only

Objectives

The objective of the research was to examine the waiting room experience of out-patients in an eye hospital in terms of outdoor exposure through window opening as positive distraction in

Members Only

Methodology

The research was done through literature survey and then a questionnaire survey conducted through local language. Among other questions several questions were assessed on ‘yes’-‘no’ answer, a five-point Likert scale

Members Only

Statistical Analysis

All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistical software, version 21. A value of p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For statistical analysis ‘Pearson Correlation’ was done along

Members Only

Results and Discussion

Thus from the above statistical analysis and observations the results can be discussed and pointed as follows:

The more the people were aged they think that window influences waiting time and

Members Only

Limitations of the Study and Scope of Future Work

Due to time constraints, while doing this research there were several limitations which can be stated as follows:

Patients were different in terms of waiting room experience with and without outdoor

Members Only

Conclusion

Significant statistical relationships can be observed with the availability, necessity and influence of window as positive distraction with patients’ age, level of education, annual income, overall waiting experience, anxiety level

Members Only

Acknowledgements

Gratitude goes to Dr. Md. Abu Sayeed for his kind help, support and giving permission for the survey. Further appreciation and thanks goes to Dr. Shahnaj, Dr. Sumbhleen, Mr. Haroon, Mrs. Mariam and other staffs of the hospital for their help and continuous support during the survey.

Rights and Permissions

Baños, R. M., Espinoza, M., García-Palacios, A., Cervera, J. M., Esquerdo, G., Barrajón, E., & Botella, C., A positive psychological intervention using virtual reality for patients with advanced cancer in a hospital setting: a pilot study to assess feasibility. Supportive Care in Cancer, 21(1), 263–270, (2013).

Bleustein, C., Rothschild, D. B., Valen, A., Valatis, E., Schweitzer, L., & Jones, R. Wait times, patient satisfaction scores, and the perception of care. The American Journal of Managed Care, 20(5), 393–400, (2014).

Cooper, L., & Foster, I., The use of music to aid patients’ relaxation in a radiotherapy waiting room. Radiography, 14(3), 184–188, (2008).

Dexter, F., & Epstein, R. H., Reducing family members’ anxiety while waiting on the day of surgery: systematic review of studies and implications of HIPAA health information privacy rules. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 13(7), 478–481. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-8180(01)00322-1, (2001).

Durrande-Moreau, A., Waiting for service: ten years of empirical research. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 10(2), 171–194, (1999).

Gasparini, G., On waiting. Time & Society, 4(1), 29–45, (1995).

Hathorn, K., & Nanda, U., A guide to evidence-based art. Concord. CA: Center for Health Design. Retrieved from http://artshealthnetwork.ca/ahnc/guide_to_evidenced_based_art_.pdf, (2008).

Hartig, T., Evans, G. W., Jamner, L. D., Davis, D. S., & Gärling, T., Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(2), 109–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00109-3, (2003).

Herzog, T. R., Black, A. M., Fountaine, K. A., & Knotts, D. J., Reflection And Attentional Recovery As Distinctive Benefits Of Restorative Environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 17(2), 165–170. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1997.0051, (1997).

Hsu, K.-C., Chen, L. F., & Hsiep, P. H., Effect of music intervention on burn patients’ pain and anxiety during dressing changes. Burns, 42(8), 1789–1796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2016.05.006, (2016).

Hua, Y., Qiu, R., Yao, W., Zhang, Q., & Chen, X., The effect of virtual reality distraction on pain relief during dressing changes in children with chronic wounds on lower limbs. Pain Management Nursing, 16(5), 685–691, (2015).

Iyendo, T. O., Exploring the effect of sound and music on health in hospital settings: A narrative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 63, 82–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.08.008, (2016).

Jiang, Y., & Chun, M. M., Selective attention modulates implicit learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 54(4), 1105–1124, (2001).

Kaplan, S., The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(3), 169–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944(95)90001-2, (1995).

Kearney, A. R., & Winterbottom, D., Nearby nature and long-term care facility residents: Benefits and design recommendations. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 19(3–4), 7–28, (2006).

Lee, D. W. H., Chan, A. C. W., Wong, S. K. H., Fung, T. M. K., Li, A. C. N., Chan, S. K. C., … Chung, S. C. S., Can visual distraction decrease the dose of patient-controlled sedation required during colonoscopy? A prospective randomized controlled trial. Endoscopy, 36(03), 197–201, (2004).

Luo, Q., Introducing Positive Distraction in a Clinic Waiting Room. Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, (2017).

Nanda, U., Chanaud, C., Nelson, M., Zhu, X., Bajema, R., & Jansen, B. H., Impact of visual art on patient behavior in the emergency department waiting room. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 43(1), 172–181, (2012).

Posner, M. I., & Snyder, C. R. R., Facilitation and inhibition in the processing of signals. Attention and Performance V, 669–682, (1975).

Schneider, S. M., & Hood, L. E., Virtual reality: a distraction intervention for chemotherapy. In Oncology nursing forum (Vol. 34, p. 39). NIH Public Access. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2121303/, (2007).

Schneider, S. M., & Workman, M. L., Virtual reality as a distraction intervention for older children receiving chemotherapy. Pediatric Nursing, 26(6), 593, (2000).

Shepley, M. M., The role of positive distraction in neonatal intensive care unit settings. Journal of Perinatology, 26, S34–S37, (2006).

Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B., A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097, (2006).

Tennessen, C. M., & Cimprich, B., Views to nature: Effects on attention. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(1), 77–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944(95)90016-0, (1995).

Thompson, D. A., Yarnold, P. R., Williams, D. R., & Adams, S. L., Effects of Actual Waiting Time, Perceived Waiting Time, Information Delivery, and Expressive Quality on Patient Satisfaction in the Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 28(6), 657–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644(96)70090-2, (1996).

Thu, H. S., Waiting Room Anxiety. Journal of Radiology Nursing, 2(34), 114, (2015).

Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M., Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11(3), 201–230, (1991).

Ulrich, R. S., Zimring, C., Zhu, X., DuBose, J., Seo, H.-B., Choi, Y.-S., Joseph, A., A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 1(3), 61–125, (2008).

Wiederhold, B. K., Gao, K., Sulea, C., & Wiederhold, M. D., Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(6), 346–352, (2014).