Fire Safety in Facade Design

A Comparison Between Fire Safety Regulations ADB, NCC, IBC

Overview

Authors

Photo of Necdet Bahadır Buluk

Necdet Bahadır Buluk

Facade Consultant

Facade Design Factory

buluk@fdf.com.tr

Photo of Ahmet Faruk Çakır

Ahmet Faruk Çakır

Facade Design Factory

faruk@fdf.com.tr


Abstract

During the last century together with growing construction technology and modern architectural trends, the number of high rise buildings and dimensions of the vision spaces have been increased dramatically. Therefore, the design of the facades of modern structures has been getting more important and complicated. Facade is an important element of a modern building that struggle with hard outdoor weather conditions and act as a separator between the internal and external environment. Fire safety is another important design issue for facade structures, especially in high rise buildings. In case of fire on one floor flames can quickly spread to upper levels of building through the wind. At this point, the reaction of facade construction to fire is getting more important. In order to design a well fire-protected facade construction and prevent rapid spread of fire, material classifications and necessary fire precaution details shall be considered in the design phase. There are international sources provide instructions to the designers regarding this important issue. The main goal of this paper is to provide important key parameters in terms of fire safety for facade designers. Material classifications and limitations according to building parameters, fire-stopping between floors, fire barrier in cavities are the main subjects that are investigated later in the paper.

Introduction

In modern architecture most commonly used system in the high rise building envelopes has become curtain walls owing to design flexibility, access to sunlight and aesthetic advantages. There are many

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Background

The role of facade fire regulations for design and applications has become more important with the increasing number of facade fires in many different countries. Many countries have made different

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Relevant Recent Fire Incidents

Façade fires do not occur frequently but recently some big façade fires have occurred around the world. This considerable increase in façade fires in UAE, France, Australia, China, and The

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Comparison of Facade Fire Safety Regulations

Fire needs 3 sources; there must be fuel to burn, air to supply oxygen and heat (ignition temperature) to start and continue the combustion process. As there will always be

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Detail Suggestions as Fire Stop Unit for Glazed Curtain Walls and Cavity Barrier for Rear Ventilated Cladding Systems

Fire Stop Unit

As mentioned previously, one of the important fire protection elements for curtain walls is the fire stop. FDF hereby suggests a solution as a fire stop element between

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Conclusion and Future Work

As the results of the investigation, the following instructions can be summarized as important key points in terms of façade design:

Material rating systems and limit the use of combustible materials.Vertical

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Rights and Permissions

BBC NEWS, 18.06.2018. “Grenfell Tower: What happened” https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-40301289.

BuildSurv, 23.05.2015. “Vertical separation of openings and spandrel construction - how do they affect your design?” https://www.buildsurv.com.au/n... Everett, 24/06/2019. “Cavity Barriers in External Walls” https://www.labcwarranty.co.uk...

Fire Safety Approved Document B, Volume 2- Buildings Other Than Dwellinghouses (2010), UK

Information On Construction Requirements. “Flame-Spread Ratings” http://sfm.dps.louisiana.gov/d... Building Code (2018), USA

National Construction Code Volume 1 (2019), Australia.

National Construction Code Guide to Volume 1 (2019), Australia.

Talwar Ramola and Harnan Eugene, December 4, 2012. “Tamweel Tower fire started by cigarette butt, say Dubai Police” https://www.thenational.ae/uae/tamweel-tower-fire-started-by-cigarette-butt-say-dubai-police-1.437519.